Mandatory vaccination: free of charge
Only the costs related to the services as well as the costs of the vaccines not covered by the RAMQ are to be expected at each visit. Please note that these costs are often covered by private insurance companies.
The principle of immunization
Since the first vaccination (against smallpox, in the 18th century), all vaccines have worked on the same principle: the introduction of a virus or bacterium into the body, in an attenuated or inactive form. They cause the immune system to produce defense antibodies and determine protection against possible infection, that is, the memory of the first contact. Thus, the immune system responds more quickly to infection and neutralizes infectious agents before symptoms appear.
For most vaccines, the first vaccination is followed by booster shots so that the body can maintain sufficient antibody levels. Vaccines undergo rigorous testing before they are marketed to ensure their efficacy and safety. Some can cause side effects, but they are usually mild: moderate fever and redness, inflammation and pain at the injection site. The risks associated with vaccines are much lower compared to the risks associated with the diseases they prevent.
The importance of immunization
Millions of people die each year from infectious diseases worldwide, and young children are much more vulnerable. Their protection must be initiated as early as possible, following vaccination schedules with real benefits. Thus, contagious diseases are reduced to extinction: pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B infections and invasive pneumococcal infections.
Thanks to vaccination, the following infections are prevented every year, worldwide:
- 2.7 million measles cases;
- 2 million cases of neonatal tetanus;
- 1 million cases of whooping cough.
List of mandatory vaccines
1. Hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccine.
- Protects against hepatitis;
- Is performed within the first 24 hours of life, in maternity.
2. Vaccine against tuberculosis (BCG).
- It is administered against tuberculosis, providing primary prophylaxis;
- Recommended age: as soon after birth in high-risk TB communities.
3. DTaP-IPV Hexavalent Vaccine – DTaP-IPV-Hib*
- It is practiced against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, infection with Haemophilus influenzae type B and the hepatitis B virus;
- Recommended age: achieved at 2 months for the first dose, 4 months for the second dose, 11 months for the third dose;
- For DTaP-IPV, a booster is carried out every 6 years.
*DTPa = combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine;
IPV = poliomyelitis vaccine;
Hib = vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type B;
HEP B = hepatitis B vaccine
4. Pneumococcal vaccine (Prevnar-13)
- Protects against meningitis, pneumonia, otitis, septicemia caused by Streptococcus penumoniae;
- Recommended age: 2 months for the first dose, 4 months for the second dose, 11 months for the third dose (this is done by the family doctor).
5. The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine
- Used for over 45 years worldwide, protects against measles, mumps and rubella;
- Recommended age: 12 months for the first dose and 5-7 years for the second dose.
6. Tetravalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-acellular-polio (DCaT-IPV)/IPV vaccine
- Recommended age: 6 years old.
7. Polio vaccine (inactivated) iPV
- Recommended age to perform: 8 years old;
- Vaccination is the only way to prevent poliomyelitis, a disease that affects the central nervous system, leading to paralysis of the extremities or the diaphragm. There is no treatment for this.
8. DTaP vaccine for adults.
- Recommended age: from 14 years old
Vaccines protect against many different diseases, such as:
- Cervical cancer (HPV)
- Rotavirus diarrhea
- Japanese encephalitis
- Yellow fever
- Typhoid fever
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Haemophilus influenzae tip B infection
- Meningococcal infection (meningitis)
- Mumps (parotitis)
- Pertussis (convulsive cough)
Contraindications of vaccines
Live vaccines containing attenuated infectious agents are contraindicated for:
- People whose immune system is weakened (from birth, of drug origin, immunosuppressed by HIV, by organ transplant, etc.). Vaccines against mumps, measles, rubella, chickenpox, herpes, yellow fever, or tuberculosis should generally not be used in these people, but may be considered on a case-by-case basis;
- Children who have had strong reactions (convulsions) to the administration of the first dose of pertussis vaccine;
- In case of pregnancy or allergy to neomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, egg proteins;
- Temporarily, in case of fever, presence of other infections, cortisone treatment, etc.
Before vaccination, report any health problem to us.
Shingles is a viral infection that occurs when the varicella-zoster virus reactivates. The virus causes both chickenpox which is the acute invasive phase, and shingles which is the reactivation of the latent phase.
Meningococcal meningitis is an acute infectious and contagious disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y and W135. In Canada, serogroup B is the most common, there is no animal reservoir or vector of this infection. It is transmitted by human contact, by aerosols from infected people or asymptomatic carriers.